What You Need to Know About Migraines: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

Migraines are a common type of headache that can cause intense pain, sensitivity to light and sound, and nausea. For some people, migraines can be debilitating. If you are one of the millions who suffer from migraines, it is essential to learn as much as possible about them. This page will discuss the causes, symptoms, and treatment of migraines. We will also provide tips for how to manage your migraines.

What Is Migraine?

Migraine is a headache disorder that can cause severe throbbing or pulsing pain on one side of the head. It is often accompanied by other symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and extreme sensitivity to light and sound. In some cases, people may also experience an aura—a warning sign before the onset of the migraine attack—which can include visual changes such as seeing spots, flashes of light, or zig-zag lines. Migraine is more common in women than men and usually begins during early adulthood. 

Types of Migraines

Migraines can be categorized into two main types: 

  1. Episodic Migraines: These are the most common type of migraine and occur up to 14 times per month, with headache attacks lasting between four and 72 hours. People who suffer from episodic migraines typically experience moderate or severe pain on one side of their head, accompanied by nausea and sensitivity to light, sound, or smell.
  2. Chronic Migraines: These occur more than 15 times per month for at least three months and may last from four hours to several days. People with chronic migraines often experience moderate or severe pain that is usually located on one side of their head. Other symptoms include nausea, sensitivity to light and sound, and visual disturbances such as light flashes or dark spots. In addition, people with chronic migraines may have difficulty concentrating and find it hard to complete everyday tasks.

Treating Migraines

Migraine relief at home may include avoiding triggers, taking medications, and managing stress.

Avoiding Triggers: Migraines can be triggered by certain foods, environmental factors (bright lights or strong odors), emotional changes such as stress and anxiety, and hormonal changes. Keeping a diary of your migraine attacks may help you identify potential triggers. 

Taking Medications: Several medications can be used to treat migraines. Over-the-counter pain relievers such as ibuprofen, aspirin, and acetaminophen are often recommended for mild migraines. For more severe attacks, your doctor may prescribe triptans specifically designed to target migraine symptoms.

Oral Appliances: For some people, using an oral appliance such as a bite guard or dental splint can help to reduce migraine pain. These appliances work by gently re-positioning the jaw and reducing the tension in the muscles of the face and neck.


For obstructive sleep apnea treatment or migraine, there are many options. However, the best approach is a personalized treatment plan created by an experienced physician that considers your specific symptoms and medical history.